|Leiter des Forschungsbereiches||Prof. Dr. med. Peter Schönknecht|
|Anschrift:||Universitätsklinikum Leipzig AöR
Department für Psychische Gesundheit
Klinik und Poliklinik für Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie
Semmelweisstraße 10, HAUS 13, 04103 Leipzig
Research Group „Subcortical dysfunction in mental disorders"
Head: Prof. Dr. med. Peter Schönknecht, M.D.
(Vice-Head: Dipl.Psych. Stephanie Schindler)
Weekly Meeting: Wednesday, 12:45 p.m., room 026
Kurzreferate und Werkstattgespräche SS 2015
Current research of the group aims to investigate neural correlates of affective and cognitive disorders in humans.
Running projects focus on structural neuroimaging of diencephalic substructures such as the hypothalamus and associated regions which have until now not been depicted systematically, in affective disorders such as major depression and bipolar disorder. The hypothalamus is involved in many aspects of autonomic, endocrine and behavioural responses which may be affected in affective disorders. The term "hypothalamus" relates to subdivisions of several nuclear cell complexes that differ in their micro-anatomical properties. It has been suggested early but not investigated in vivo that functional abnormalities of the hypothalamus are associated with structural hypothalamic changes. Until now, parcellation of hypothalamic subnuclei (Nucleus suprachiasmaticus, Nucleus supraopticus) has only been feasible with histological techniques post-mortem. Hypothalamic subregions are differentially involved in the pathophysiology of affective disorders and indeed, volume deficits in the hypothalamus were found in patients with affective disorders post mortem. By using high resolution (7T) structural neuroimaging our research may now allow the investigation of the hypothalamus and certain substructures systematically in vivo. In one of our main projects we are investigating the hypothalamus and its nuclei in affective disorders using structural high (3T) and ultra-high (7T) resolution MRI as well as diffusion-weighted MRI (3T DWI) in cooperation with PD Dr. S. Geyer and Prof. Dr. B. Turner, Max Planck Institute of Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Leipzig. Based on ultra-high resolution MRI we are establishing a reliable manual segmentation algorithm of the hypothalamus and the mamillary bodies, in order to apply them in vivo to the investigation of depressive patients (major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder) in comparison with healthy controls. Using the directionality information inherent in diffusion-weighted MRI data we further parcellate the hypothalamus into subregions for a localization of regional volumetric changes.
Further projects of the group focus on neurochemistry of subcortical markers and electroencephalography as well as morphometric and functional analyses in neurodegenerative diseases (PET), and the development of EEG-MRI methods.
Prof. Dr. med. Peter Schönknecht, M.D.
- Prof. Dr. med. Peter Schönknecht graduated from Medical School in 1996 and presented his doctoral thesis in 1997 with summa cum laude
- he received his specialist training and worked as a senior scientist at the Departments of Psychiatry and Neurology of the Medical Faculty at Heidelberg University from 1998-2005 (Prof. Schröder, Prof. Hacke, Prof. Mundt)
- in 2005 he was a research fellow at the Neuroscience PET Laboratory at Mount Sinai Medical School, New York (Prof. M. Buchsbaum)
- in 2007, he presented his postdoctoral thesis (Habilitation) and received his venia legendi at Heidelberg University
- since 2007 he is vice head of the University Hospital for Psychiatry and Psychotherapy at Leipzig University (Director: Prof. Dr. U. Hegerl), head of the outpatient clinic for affective disorders and head of the research group on subcortical dysfunctions in mental disorders
Coworkers and current projects (in alphabetical order)
cand. med. Alexander Bialojan
Project: Development of a full automated 7T MRI image alignment algorithm of the human hypothalamus
- doctoral student since 2009
- born 1987 in Potsdam, from 1994 to 2000 primary school in Teltow, from 2000 to 2007 secondary school, Weinberg Gymnasium Kleinmachnow, intensive course Mathematics and Physics
- since 2007 clinical medical student at the MLU Halle/Saale with special interests in Emergency Surgery and Neuroscience
- since 2011 collaboration with the Max Plank Institute Leipzig
- concerned with creation individual measured subcortical atlas of the Hypothalamus by using full automatic MRI image alignment algorithm
cand. med. Anne-Sophie Binninger
Project: in vivo volumetry of the hypothalamus in adipositas in 3T-MRI
- born 1988 in Bietigheim- Bissingen, went to school at Oscar-Paret-Gymnasium Freiberg/ Nekar from 1998 to 2007 with one semester abroad in Dublin 2004, Ireland and some semester abroad in Geraldine, New Zealand 2004/05
- graduated in human medicine at the University of Leipzig in 2013
- since 2013 member oft the research group „subcortical dysfunctions"
- sponsored as member of the MD-Pro1 programme of IFB Adipositas Leipzig since November 2013
- current research deals with the in vivo volumetry of the hypothalamus in adipositas in 3T-MRI using the segmentation algorithm developed by cand. med. Julia Wolff: MRI-based in vivo volumetry of the human hypothalamus in adipositas
cand. med. Uta Claußnitzer
Project:Interactive segmentation algorithm of the human hippocampus
Uta Claußnitzer is a medical student in 5th year. She studied the first two years in Greifswald and continued in 2010 in Leipzig. Since April 2013 she is part of the group and works together with the cooperation partners from Marburg on the volumetry of the hippocampus. She is specially interested in developping an interactive segmentation algorithm of the hippocampus and its subfields in highfiels resolution 7T MRI images in humans.
Dr. rer. med. Dipl.-Psych. Thomas Günther
Project: Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor mapping using positron emission tomography and voxel based morphometry in affective disorders
- graduated in 2006 in Psychology (Diplom-Psychologist) from the Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg in Halle (Saale), Germany
- 2001-2004 as student assistant in cognitive psychology, his research interests were the processes of human auditory perception and visual attention
- 2006-2007, he worked as research associate in the sleep laboratory of the Martin-Luther-University
- since 2008, he is PhD student at the research group on subcortical dysfunctions in psychiatric disorders
- his research activities comprise structural and functional neuroimaging analyses in patients with depression or neurodegenerative diseases
- he investigates (a) changes of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor system using positron emission tomography (PET) in drug-naïve patients with depression,
- (b) structural changes in drug-naïve patients with depression using voxel-based morphometry as well as
- (c) alterations of the cerebral glucose metabolism in patients with mild cognitive impairment or Alzheimer's disease using [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose PET
Guenther T, Schönknecht P, Becker G, Olbrich S, Sander C, Hesse S, Meyer PM,Luthardt J, Hegerl U, Sabri O (2011). Impact of EEG-vigilance on brain glucose uptake measured with [18F]FDG and PET in patients with depressive episode or mild cognitive impairment. Neuroimage 56(1): 93-101.
Schönknecht OD, Hunt A, Toro P, Guenther T, Henze M, Haberkorn U, Schröder J
(2011). Bihemispheric cerebral FDG PET correlates of cognitive dysfunction as assessed by the CERAD in Alzheimer's disease. Clin EEG Neurosci 42(2): 71-6.
cand. med. Marlene Kleinsorge
Project: Development of a 7T MRI image algorithm of the human mammillary bodies in vivo
- medical student, fifth year of study at the University of Leipzig
- she investigates as a doctoral student structural changes of the mamillary bodies using 7T-MRI images of patients with unmedicated depression, medicated depression and chronic depression
- her research aims to elucidate structural changes of subcortical brain regions involved in the pathogenesis of affective disorders
- recently, based on ultra-high resolution MRI, in the present project she established a manual segmentation guideline of the hypothalamus and the mamillary bodies and applies it in vivo to the investigation of depressive patients (major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder) in comparison with healthy controls
cand. med. Anika Küntzelmann
Project: The impact of the anatomical reference region on cerebral glucose metabolism using FDG positron emission tomography
- Anika Küntzelmann is studying medicine at the university of Leipzig
- since 2009 she is part of NUGREP and work as a doctoral student in the research group headed by PD Dr. Schönknecht
- she showed that using [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography, patients with manifest AD dementia typically show impairment of cerebral glucose metabolism in bilateral temporoparietal association cortices and posterior cingulate cortex whereas in patients with MCI the results are heterogeneous
- in the doctoral thesis she examined alterations of the cerebral glucose metabolism in patients with prodromal AD as compared to patients with AD dementia as well as healthy control subjects depending on different intensity normalization (whole brain or cerebellar cortex as reference region)
Project: Semi-automatic volumetry of the Hypothalamus using intensity-based segmentation
- Born 1988 in Rostock
- 2007-2011 B.Sc. in Computer Science at the University of Paderborn, Bachelor thesis: "Ermittlung optimaler Beleuchtungs- und Materialparameter für medizinische Volumenvisualisierungen"
- 2009 Exchange semester in Norman, Oklahoma; 2011-2012 Internship in Vadodara, India-
- Since 2012 Master's student of the Medical Computer Science at Leipzig University
- Since 2013 Student assistant, project: Semi-automatic volumetry of the Hypothalamus using intensity-based segmentation
Dipl.-Psych. Nicole I. Mauche, associate scientist
Project: Auditory event-related brain potentials for differentiating mild cognitive impairment from minor depression in ageing
- born 1976, since 06/2010 associate scientist; LIFE Research Cluster; Medizinische Fakultät; LIFE (Leipzig Research Center for Civilization Diseases, Universität Leipzig - A prospective population-based cohort study in the region of Leipzig to investigate
- molecular causes of environment and lifestyle-associated disorders (www.uni-leipzig-life.de))
- 09/2004 - 04/2010 psychology degree; Humboldt Universität zu Berlin; Diplom (equivalent to M. Sc.), diploma thesis: Mauche, N. I. (2010). The P300 as an indicator of cognitive performance in schizophrenic patients and healthy controls with and without former cannabis consumption. unpublished diploma thesis, Humbolt Universität zu Berlin
- research interests include: - Effects of aging and age-associated diseases on auditory event-related brain potentials, Diagnostic value of auditory event-related brain potentials for differentiating mild cognitive impairment from minor depression in ageing, - Molecular genetic of P3 subcomponents of the auditory event-related brain potentials
Dr. med. Friederike Petzold
Project: Anatomical landmark-based 3T MRI Segmentation and Diffusion imaging-based subdivision of the human hypothalamus
- born 1986 in Rochlitz, went to school at Gymnasium Penig and Rochlitz from 1996-2004
- studied human medicine at the University of Leipzig and Université Claude-Bernard de Lyon, graduated at the University of Leipzig in 2013
- resident in internal medicine at Universitätsklinikum Leipzig since 05/2013
- since 2008 collaboration with the Max Plank Institute for Cognitive and Brain Sciences Leipzig: Anatomical landmark-based 3T MRI Segmentation and Diffusion imaging-based subdivision of the human hypothalamus
- defended doctoral thesis investigating ‘Diffusion imaging-based subdivision of the human hypothalamus` in 07/2014
The glial hypothesis of major depression (MD) discusses alterations of glial cells,
namely astrocytes and oligodendrocytes, as specific for this disorder. This
hypothesis is supported in vivo by increases in the glial marker protein S100B in
serum, and by post mortem histopathological studies. Another potential
plasticity marker, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), is shown to be decreased in MD and restored after antidepressant treatment in serum. In contrast to glial
marker proteins, the neuronal marker neuron specific enolase (NSE) is not altered
in depressive patients. Nothing is known so far about these serum markers in
minor depression (MnD).
MD has also been related to specific neural clusters in imaging studies, in particular grey matter volume reductions in mid-frontal cortex, hippocampus, and amygdala. MnD is believed to be a prestate of MD. Only one imaging study has been published
on MnD yet that showed volume reductions in the prefrontal lobes. However, combing both kinds of information, serum and imaging markers, is rare and extension of the methods on to MnD has not been done so far.
The project investigates how serum biomarkers and magnetic resonance imaging
(MRI) data (resting state, T1 and diffusion-tensor imaging, DTI) might be combined
to better understand MnD as a prodromal state or differential diagnosis of MD.
Dipl.-Psych. Stephanie Schindler
Project: Development a 7T MRI image segmentation algorithm of the human hypothalamus
- 2002 - 2003: Study of food chemistry, Faculty of Science, Technical University of Dresden, Germany;
- 2003 - 2009: Study of psychology, Faculty of Science, Technical University of Dresden, Germany (Diploma with distinction)
- 2009 - 2010: Psychological assessment; FAW Fortbildungsakademie der Wirtschaft gGmbH, Dresden, Germany
- Since 2010: PhD student in psychology; Medical Faculty and Faculty of Biosciences, Pharmacy and Psychology, University of Leipzig, Germany
- Research interests: Development, evaluation, and application of biopsychological methods for research into biological and neural foundations of mental diseases.
- Current research: Structural brain correlates (in particular the hypothalamus and its nuclei) of affective disorders using structural high resolution (3 & 7T) MRI, and diffusion-weighted MRI (3T DWI). A cooperation with the Max Planck Institute for Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Leipzig
Schindler, S., Schönknecht, P., Schmidt, L., Anwander, A., Strauß, M., Trampel, R., Bazin, P. L., Möller, H. E., Hegerl, U., Turner, R., and Geyer, S. (2013). Development and evaluation of an algorithm for the computer-assisted segmentation of the human hypothalamus on 7-Tesla magnetic resonance images. PLoS One 8(7), Online at http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0066394.
Schönknecht, P., Anwander, A., Petzold, F., Schindler, S., Knösche, T.
R., Möller, H. E., Hegerl, U., Turner, R., and Geyer, S. (2013).
Diffusion imaging-based subdivision of the human hypothalamus: a magnetic resonance study with clinical implications. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 263(6), 497-508.
Schindler, S., Geyer, S., Strauß, M., Anwander, A., Hegerl, U., Turner, R., and Schönknecht, P. (2012). Structural studies of the hypothalamus and its nuclei in mood disorders. Psychiatry Research 201(1), 1-9.
Dr. med. Frank M. Schmidt, M.D.
Project: Neurochemical and imaging markers of affective and cognitive disorders
Frank M. Schmidt has attended medical school in Leipzig and Prague and graduated in 2010. He defended his doctoral thesis investigating ‘The role of orexin-A in affective disorder' in 2012 (s.c.l.). Besides the actual residency in psychiatry, post-graduate scope in the work-groups ‘Neurobiology of Affective Disorders' and ‘Subcortical Dysfunction in Psychiatric Diseases' include the neurochemistry of subcortical markers such as HCRT-1 and MCH in combination with electroencephalographic (EEG) as well as morphometric analyses in affective disorders ( Habenula in 7T) and Alzheimer's disease and the development of predictive value of EEG vigilance on antidepressant therapy (VIRAP).
cand. med. Laura Schmidt
Project: Hypothalamus volumetry and serum cortisol levels in patients with affective disorders
- Laura Schmidt is studying medicine in the 5th year at the University of Leipzig
- since 2011 member of the research group "subcortical dysfunctions"
- current research is focussed on the association of structural diencephalic brain correlates of affective disorders and cortisol serum levels
- after establishing a guideline for the manual segmentation of the hypothalamus on ultra high-resolution MRI pictures, structural abnormalities of this brain region in patients with major depressive or bipolar disorder as well as associations between observed structural changes of the hypothalamus and clinical symptoms, medication status, and structural changes of connected brain regions will be investigated
Dipl.-Psych. Nadine Sonnabend
Project: Prevalence of minor depression with and without mild cognitive impairment in a community based sample (LIFE)
- born 1980, graduated in 2009 in Psychology (Diplom-Psychologist) from the Johannes Gutenberg-University in Mainz, Germany, focus on clinical psychology, abnormal psychology and health psychology,
- since 2009 scientific assistant at the Department of Psychiatry of the University Hospital Leipzig
- since 06/ 2010 associate scientist; LIFE Research Cluster, Medizinische Fakultät, LIFE (Leipzig Research Center for Civilization Diseases, Universität Leipzig- A prospective population-based cohort study in the region of Leipzig to investigate molecular causes of environment and lifestyle-associated disorders (www.uni-leipzig-life.de)
- since 10/ 2010 Psychotherapist-in-training behavior therapy(Psychologische Psychotherapeutin i.A.)
- Current Research is focussed on minor and subdiagnostic depression in elderly persons with and without mild cognitive impairment
Dr. med. Marie Steinmetz
- born 1986 in Munich, moved to Leipzig in 1996, went to school at Thomasschule zu Leipzig from 1996 to 2004
- graduated in human medicine at the University of Leipzig in 2011
- she is working as a resident at the ward for affective disorders, Klinik und Poliklinik für PSychiatrie und PSychotherapie at the University of Leipzig
- since 2013 member of the research group "subcortical dysfunctions"
- current research deals with high resolution MRI and fMRS during treatment of patients suffering from MDD with melancholic features with ECT, focussing on structural brain changes (in particular Hippocampus volume reduction, ACC and Hypothalamus) and correlating concentrations of neurotransmitters (Glutamate, Glutamine, GABA)
Steinmetz M; Himmerich H, Steinberg H, Christa Kohlers "Kommunikative Psychotherapie"- ein integratives Psychotherapiekonzept im biographischen, wissenschaftlichen und historischen Kontext. Fortschritte Neurologie Psychiatrie 2012; 80:250-259
Steinmetz M, Himmerich H, Steinberg H, Eine frühe sozialpsychiatrische Schrift in der DDR. Christa Kohlers Habilitation über Neurosen und Psychosen der zweiten Lebenshälfte. Psychiatrische Praxis 2013; 40:65-71
Dr. med. Anja Tränkner, M.D.
Project: Structural neuroimaging (7T MRI) of the subgenual gyrus in uni- and bipolar depression
- born in Dresden, Saxony, she graduated in human medicine at the University of Leipzig in 2008
- during her studies she obtained a doctorate at the Institute of Anatomy at the University of Leipzig
- currently, she is working as a resident at the outpatient clinic for affective disorders, Klinik und Poliklinik für Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie at the University of Leipzig
- she works in brain imaging of neuropsychiatric conditions
- research interest focus on the Subgenual Prefrontal Cortex Project: The Subgenual Prefrontal Cortex (SGPFC) is located beneath the Corpus Callosum (CC) and is involved in mood regulation. It is part of the limbic system and has efferents to diverse brain regions, such as ncl. accumbens, thalamus, amygdala and hippocampus. Studies have shown increased blood flow in depressed patients and the reversion during remission of depressive symptoms. Inverse results were found on the SGPFC volumes in diverse MRI studies. Smaller Volumes occurred in patients with major depressive episode. Based on these findings deep brain stimulation in this region was established, which leads to a decrease of neuronal activity and decline of depressive symptoms. In the present study we aim to investigate the SGPFC by using high resolution 7T MRI.
cand. med. Thomas Kröber
- born 1988 in Heidelberg, went to Gymnasium Steglitz, Berlin, from 1999 to 2007 with two semesters abroad at Wellington School, England in 2004/2005.
- since 2007 Medical student at the University of Leipzig.
- currently involved in a retrospective study at the forensic psychiatric hospital of Altscherbitz, in collaboration with the University of Leipzig,
- assessing the clinical predictors of therapeutical success for patients who have been sentenced to treatment according to §63 StGB"
cand. med. Julia Wolff
Project: Hypothalamus segmentation algorithm in 3T-MRI
- medical student at the University of Leipzig since 2007, currently in her final year
- September 2010 - February 2011: scientific internship at the Institute for Cardiovascular Research of the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam with focus on diabetic cardiomyopathy
- since 2013 doctoral student in the research group
- current research deals with the segmentation of the hypothalamus in 3T MRI:
- Volumetric differences of the hypothalamus have been revealed in affective disorders. To investigate these in vivo, a precise definition of the hypothalamus in MRI images is necessary. Based on the segmentation algorithm for ultra-high resolution 7T-MRI, now the algorithm for high resolution 3T-MRI is being developed.
cand. med. Anna Michaljow
Project: Development a 7T MRI image segmentation algorithm of the human hypothalamus
Anna Michaljow is studying medicine in her final year at the University of Leipzig.
Her main research interest is the influence of medication on the volume of the hypothalamus with respect to affective disorders
cand. med. Melanie Adamidis
Project: Volumetric changes of the grey matter in 3T MRI (VBM) in patients with minor depression and mild cognitive impairment and morphometric analysis in affective disorders
- born 1983 in Dresden, Saxony
- graduated as medical technical assistant for functional diagnostics (Neurology, Cardiology, Pneumology and Audiology) in 2005 at the BWM Medizinisch-Technisches Aus- und Weiterbildungszentrum GmbH Leipzig
- worked as medical technical assistant at the Department of Neurology of the University Hospital Leipzig from 2005 to 2009
- medical student at the University of Leipzig since 2009
- her current research deals with the volumetric changes of the grey matter in 3T MRI (VBM) in patients with minor depression and mild cognitive impairment and morphometric analysis in affective disorders (Habenula in 7T)
Project: Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) in major depressive disorder during antidepressant therapy
Vigilance regulation as response predictor for antidepressant pharmacotherapy
2009- 2010 MSc Neuroscience at the Institute of Psychiatry, King`s College, University of London.
2006- 2009 BSc Psychology at the University of Twente, Enschede, Netherlands
1997- 2005 Gymnasium St. Michael, Paderborn
11/11- ongoing Research Assistant at the Psychiatry in Leipzig for Prof. Dr. U. Hegerl
04/11- 11/11 Intership at the Max-Planck-Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Science (Psychology Department)
11/10- 11/11 Research Assistant for Dr. Roman Liepelt (Lab of Prof. Dr. M.Lappe)
03/-08/2010 MSc Research Project, Institute of Psychiatry, King`s College, London
2008- 2009 BSc Research Project at Tactus, Addiction Care Center, Enschede, Netherlands
Project: Volumetric changes of the subgenual prefrontal cortex in bipolar patients using 7T MRI
- born 1988 in Altenburg, went to school at Johann-Wolfgang-von Goethe Gymnasium Chemnitz from 1999 to 2007 with two semesters abroad at Oswestry School, England 2003/2004
- since 2007 medical student at the University of Leipzig
- since 2013 member of the research group "subcortical dysfunctions"
- as a doctoral student she is currently investigating volumetric changes of the subgenual prefrontal cortex in bipolar patients using 7T MRI
Dipl.-Psych. Wiebke Rahmlow
Project: Interdisciplinary longitudinal study on adult development and aging – prevalence and dynamics of cognitive and affective symptoms
- graduated in 2013 in psychology from the University of Leipzig (Diploma thesis: Relation of Goal Anticipation and Imitation in 14-months-old Children
- since 2014 PhD student at the research group on subcortical dysfunction in mental disorders
- Scholarship student for the ILSE (interdisciplinary longitudinal study on adult development and aging),a longitudinal study on aging based on two birth cohorts (1930-1932 and 1950-1952
research interests: Mild cognitive disorder and subthreshold depression in the elderly, statistical analysis of longitudinal changes
cand. med. Nora Freund
Project: The role of the mamillary bodies in affective disorders
- studies medicine since 2007
- after having completed the pre-clinical part of the studies in Freiburg, she continued studying at the University of Leipzig
- as a doctoral student, in 2012 together with Marlene Kleinsorge she developed an algorithm for the segmentation of the mamillary bodies in high resolution 7T-MRI images
- she investigates structural changes of the mamillary bodies in patients with Bipolar Disorder and compares them with healthy controls
- as to date there are no in vivo reports concerning the role of the mamillary bodies in affective disorders her investigation aims to contribute to filling this research gap
Project: Volumetric changes of hypothalamus and third ventricle in patients with major depression or bipolar disorder using 7T MRI
- born 1989 in Neuruppin, Brandenburg
- graduated in human medicine at the University of Rostock in 2014
- moved to Leipzig in 2013
- since 2015 member of the research group "subcortical dysfunctions"
- her current research deals with the volumetric changes of hypothalamus and third ventricle in patients with major depression or bipolar disorder comparing with healthy controls using 7T MRI
|Department of Psychiatry Ruprecht-Karls University Heidelberg|
|Department of Nuclear Medicine|
|Institute of Gerontology|
|German Cancer Research Center Heidelberg|
|Department of Neuroradiology, University Hospital Leipzig|
|LIFE (Leipzig Research Center for Civilization Diseases, Universität Leipzig) - A
prospective population-based cohort study in the region of Leipzig to investigate molecular causes of environment and lifestyle-associated disorders www.uni-leipzig-life.de
|Leibniz Institute Magdeburg|
|Max Planck Institute of Cognitive and Brain Sciences Leipzig|
|Neuroscience PET Lab, UCL San Diego, Prof. M. Buchsbaum|
|Pontificia Universidad CatholÎ¯ca, Facultad de Medicina, Departamento de PsiquiatrÎ¯a, Santiago de Chile, Chile|
|Sächsisches Krankenhaus Altscherbitz, Hospital for Forensic Psychiatry|